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高一英语期末考试必背知识点:English around the world
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高一英语期末考试必背知识点:English around the world

 核心单词
  1. command
  n. & vt. 命令;指令;掌握
  The officer commanded his soldiers to fire.
  那名军官命令士兵们开火。
  A general is a man who commands a large number of soldiers.
  将军是统率众多士兵的人。
  常用结构:
  at/ by sb’s command 听某人支配
  take command of 控制
  in command of 指挥着
  under one’s command 由某人的指挥
  under the command of sb. 在某人的指挥下
  command sb. to do sth. 命令某人做某事
  command (=order) that ... 命令……(从句用虚拟语气,即should+ do 形式,should可省略)
  联想拓展
  commander n. 指挥官
  高手过招
  用适当的介词填空(原创)
  ①For the first time in years, she felt she was command
  of her life.
  ②The army is the king’s direct command.
  ③The police arrived and took command the situation.
  ①in ②under/at/by ③of
  2. request
  vt.&n. 请求;恳求;要求
  常用结构:
  request sb. to do sth.请求某人做某事
  request sth. from/of sb. 向某人要求某物
  request that sb. (should) do sth.要求某人做某事
  make a request/requests 发出请求
  at the request of sb.=at sb.’s request依照某人的请求
  易混辨析
  request/demand/require
  request表示“有礼貌的请求;正式的请求”。
  demand表示“有正当权利的要求”,因此含有“坚决或强烈要求”的意思。
  require表示“要求所必须的东西;法律、协定、规章以及其他客观情况的要求”。
  但它们也有不同之处:
  ①require和request都可以接宾语+to do sth.结构,而demand没有此种用法。但可以说demand of sb. to do sth.
  ②require+动名词时,主动形式的动名词具有被动意义,而demand,request无此种用法。
  They are demanding higher wages. 他们要求提高工资。
  Do you require anything else? 你还要求(需要)别的吗?
  Many people have requested this next song.
  许多人要求听下面这首歌。
  They required me to keep silent. 他们要求我保持沉默。
  The letter requested us to leave the house within six weeks.
  这封信要求我们六周内搬出这所房子。
  温馨提示
  以上三个词的共同点是:从语法上看,request和demand,require都可以接that引导的宾语从句,并且在从句中要使用虚拟语气。
  高手过招
  单项填空
  ①One of the requirements for a fire is that the material to its burning temperature.
  A. be heated B. is heated
  C. would be heated D. do heat
  ②—Why were you late for such an important concert?
  —The plane arrived at the airport after a of three hours. (2010·陕西商洛一轮检测)
  A. delay B. rest C. tour D. request
  ①解析:选A。如同require, demand, order, suggest, advise, insist, request等动词要求其后面的宾语从句使用虚拟语气一样,它们所对应的名词的同位语从句和表语从句也要求使用虚拟语气,即:should+动词原形。故选A。
  ②解析:选A。上句询问“迟到的原因”,因此下句中的名词应是与“迟到”意义有关的名词,所以只能选择“延误”。
  3. recognize
  vt. 辨认出;承认;公认
  常用结构:
  recognize sb. 认出某人
  recognize one’s voice听出某人的声音
  recognize ... as ... 认定;承认……为……
  recognize sb./sth. ... to be ...认为某人/某事物是……
  recognize that ...承认……
  When he walked out of the station, I recognized him immediately.
  当他从车站里走出来时,我立刻认出了他。
  Everyone recognized him to be the lawful heir/as the lawful heir. 大家都承认他为合法继承人。
  高手过招
  单项填空
  —Oh, it’s you! I you.
  —I have just had my hair cut, and I’m wearing new glasses.
  A. hadn’t recognized B. haven’t recognized
  C. didn’t recognize D. don’t recognize
  解析:选C。前句的句意为:哦,是你呀!我刚才没有认出你来。
  所以要用一般过去时。
  4. direction
  n. [C] 方向;方面;[U]指导;指挥
  常用结构:
  in the direction of 朝……的方向(=towards)
  in sb’s direction 朝某人的方向(=towards sb.)
  under one’s direction 在……指导下(=under the direction of sb.)
  Tom went off in one direction and Jack in another.
  汤姆往一个方向走,杰克往另外一个方向走。
  Reforms are needed in many directions. 许多方面都需要改革。
  He is walking in the direction of the police station.
  他正朝警察局的方向走去。
  He glanced in her direction and their eyes met.
  他朝她这个方向一看,俩人的眼睛相遇了。
  The singing group is under the direction of Mr Lee.
  合唱团由李先生指挥。
  温馨提示
  direction意为“指示;指引;用法说明”等,通常要用复数形式。
  注意:表示邮件上的“姓名地址”时,也用复数形式。
  Follow the directions on the medicine bottle.
  请按药瓶上的说明服药。
  高手过招
  (1)单项填空
  Those who learn theory must develop the direction of practice.
  A. to B. on C. in D. for
  (2)完成句子 (原创)
  ①I gave Mary full (地址)to enable her to find the post office.
  ②He did the work (在我的指导下).
  (1)解析:选C。in the direction of为固定搭配,意为“朝……方向”。注意不要用介词to。
  (2)①directions ②under my direction
  重点短语
  5. more than one
  意为“不止一个”,虽然在意义上表示复数,但作主语或修饰主语时,谓语动词用单数,与many a(许多)用法一样;如果more修饰复数可数名词再跟than one作主语时,其谓语动词则要用复数。
  More than one member has protested against the proposal.
  不止一个成员反对这个建议。
  More than one person has been concerned in this.
  这里面涉及的不仅是一个人。
  More persons than one have been involved.
  涉及的不仅仅是一个人。
  联想拓展
  “more than+ adj.”意为“很;非常”。
  在“more ... than ...”中,肯定“more”后面的,而否定“than”后面的,意为“是……而不是……”或者“与其……不如……”。
  “more than ... can/could”是英语里的一个常见结构,可把more than理解为not,表示否定,该结构意为“非……所能……;是……所不能……;不是……所能……”。
  more often than not 经常;往往
  In doing scientific experiments, one must be more than careful with the instruments.
  做科学实验时,对待仪器必须非常小心才行。
  If you tell your father what you have done, he will be more than a little angry.
  如果你把所做的事情告诉你父亲,他会非常生气的。
  Catherine is more diligent than intelligent.

 
 
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