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初三英语重要知识点整理:句子成分
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初三英语重要知识点整理:句子成分


【问】什么是句子成分?英语句子包含哪些成分?
【答】组成句子的各个部分叫做句子成分。它包括:主语、谓语、宾语、定语、状语、表语和宾语补足语等。
【问】各成分在句中的作用如何?分别由哪些词及短语充当?
【答】
1.主语:是句子要说明的人或事物,是句子的主体,一般由名词、代词、数词、不定式或动名词等充当。如:
The car is running fast.(名词)
We are students.(代词)
One of my classmates is from Shanghai.(数词)
It's bad manners to spit in public.(不定式)
Eating too much is bad for your health.(动名词)
【注意】若不定式短语作主语常用it作形式主语,而把真正的主语(不定式短语)放在句后。
2.谓语:说明主语的动作或状态,也是句子的主体部分,一般由动词充当。动词分为实义动词、连系动词、情态动词和助动词。实义动词单独作谓语,连系动词与表语一起构成谓语,情态动词与省略to的不定式构成合成谓语,助动词与动词原形共同构成谓语部分。如:
He works in a factory.(实义动词)
I felt cold.(系动词+表语)
How can I get to the station?(情态动词+实义动词)
Do you speak English?(助动词+实义动词)
They are working in a field.(助动词+实义动词)
【注意】谓语与主语在人称与数方面要相互照应。
3.宾语:是及物动词所涉及的对象,一般由名词、代词、不定式及动名词等充当。如:
He is doing his homework.(名词)
They did nothing this morning.(代词)
She wants to go home.(不定式)
We enjoy playing football.(动名词)
【注意】①有的动词可接双宾语,间接宾语指人,直接宾语指物。这类动词常见的有:give,buy,lend,pass, tell,leave等。如:
He bought me a book.
Pass me the ball,will you?(间宾+直宾)
直接宾语一般放在间接宾语之后,但若把直接宾语放在前面,则要在间接宾语前加适当的介词如to或 for等。如:
Han Chen lent some money to Li Hai.(直宾+间宾)
Xiao Liu bought a dictionary for Tom.(直宾+间宾)
②有的动词常用不定式作宾语,而不能用动名词。这类动词有:want,wish, hope,promise,decide,agree, choose,care等。如:
I hope to see you again.
③有的动词一般只用动名词作宾语,而不用不定式。这类动词有:enjoy,finish,mind,practise,miss, suggest,keep(on)等。如:
Do you mind my opening the window?
④有的动词后接不定式与动名词含义不同。
a)forget to do表示“未发生的动作”,forget doing表示“已完成的动作”。如:
Don't forget to come here earlier tomorrow.(还没来)
I forgot returning the book to him.(书已还给他了)
b)stop to do(不定式为状语)表示“停下
原来的事,去做另一件事”,stop doing表示“停止做某事”。如:
I stopped to talk with him.(我停下来与他谈话。)
The students stopped talking when the teacher came in.(老师进来时学生们停止谈话。)
4.定语:用于修饰名词或代词,一般由形容词、名词、数词、不定式等充当。如:
What a beautiful kite it is!(形容词)
She is a chemistry teacher.(名词)
There are two students in the classroom.(数词)
We have something to do tomorrow.(不定式)
The man in blue is my brother.(介词短语)
【注意】定语一般位于被修饰词之前,但若修饰不定代词或不定式等短语作定语,则放在后面。
5.状语:用于修饰动词、形容词、副词或全句,一般由副词、介词短语、不定式短语或从句充当。单个副词作状语一般放在被修饰词之前,短语或从句放在句首或句末。如:
Thank you very much.(副词)
I get up at five in the morning.(介词短语)
He is studying hard so as to catch up with others.(不定式短语)
We were having breakfast when the telephone rang.(从句)
【注意】enough作状语只能放在被修饰词之后。如:
He is old enough to go to school.
6.表语:用于说明主语的身份、特征或感受,一般由名词、数词、形容词、分词等充当。常用的连系动词有:be,look,get,sound(听起来),feel,become, smell,turn,taste(尝起来)等。如:
They are workers.(名词)
Two and three is five.(数词)
The story is very interesting.(形容词)
M y job(工作)is teaching English.(动名词)
She is at home.(介词短语)
I feel terrible.(形容词)
The dish tastes delicious.(形容词)
7.宾语补足语:用于补充说明宾语的动作,一般位于宾语之后,宾语与宾语补足语一起构成复合宾语。需接复合宾语的动词有:tell,let,help,teach, ask,see,have,order,make等。“宾补”一般由不定式短语、分词、名词、形容词等充当。如:
We elected him monitor.(名词)
I found it difficult to learn English well.(形容词)
The doctor told me to do more exercise.(不定式短语)
He is going to have his hair cut.(过去分词)
They saw a bird flying in the sky.(现在分词)

 词类相互间的关系。
 形容词、数词通常修饰名词(有时名词也可以修饰另外一个名词),形容词还可修饰代词。例如:
1)The three tall and strong men are all basket-
(定语) (主) (谓) (定语)
ball players.(“主系表”结构)
(表语)
数词three和形容词tall , strong修饰名词men; 名词basketball修饰名词players.
2)The writer often writes something interesting
(主) (壮) (谓) (宾) (定)
about children. (“主胃宾”结构)
(定)
形容词interesting修饰不定代词something

 
 
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